Денисов А.О. Вариации в отображении Столпов Геракла на средневековых картах [Электронный ресурс] // Vox medii aevi. 2020 Vol. 1–2(6–7). С. 178–228. URL: http://voxmediiaevi.com/2020-1-2-denisov

DOI: 10.24411/2587-6619-2020-10006

> Статья в PDF


Денисов Андрей Олегович

Аспирант исторического факультета, Московский государственный университет им. М. В. Ломоносова
andreydenisov7377@yandex.ru

Вариации в отображении Столпов Геракла на средневековых картах

На многих средневековых картах обозначались границы ойкумены. Как правило, эту роль исполняли различные алтари или колонны: Александра Македонского, Вакха, Филенов и другие. Крайними же западными точками известного мира еще с античных времен считались город Гадес (Gades), впоследствии Кадис, и Геракловы Столпы (Columnae Herculis). Создатели средневековых карт неизменно отмечали на них границы ойкумены не только потому, что стремились к созданию симметричной структуры. Возможно, они считали необходимым подчеркнуть принципиальную достижимость пределов обитаемого мира, что, в частности, было связано с эсхатологическими представлениями и миссионерскими задачами церкви, стремящейся распространить истинную веру на весь мир. При этом одни и те же объекты, рассматриваемые в качестве крайнего западного пункта ойкумены, отображались на средневековых картах весьма вариативно.

Ключевые слова: mappae mundi; Гадес (Кадис); Геракловы Столпы; Птолемей.


Andrey Denisov

Post-Graduate Student of the Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University andreydenisov7377@yandex.ru

Variations in Representation of Pillars of Hercules on Medieval Maps

The limits of the oecumene are demonstrated on many medieval maps. The function of marking its boundaries was usually performed by different altars and columns: the ones of Alexander the Great, Bacchus, the Philaeni and others. Gades, subsequently Cádiz, and the Pillars of Hercules (Columnae Herculis) were considered to be the ultimate western points of the oecumene from ancient times. Marking its limits on medieval maps was important not only because of the intention to create a symmetrical map structure but it could also be necessary to highlight the accessibility of the boundaries of the known world since it was particularly connected to eschatological conceptions and missionary tasks of the church trying to spread the true faith all over the world. Moreover, the same objects marking the ultimate western point of the oecumene were displayed on medieval maps in many different ways.

Gades and the Pillars of Hercules were mentioned in many ancient sources such as the works of Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Solinus, Orosius, in the apocryphal Book of Jubilees, and in early medieval encyclopedia by Isidore of Seville. In these texts Gades and the columns of the Greek hero are connected to each other and often mentioned together. There were many versions about what can be considered the Pillars of Hercules in early sources but Pliny and later authors thought them to be two mountains at the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar: Calpe and Abila. There was a combination of the images of Gades and the columns, Gades Herculis, on medieval world maps. This designation referred to the image of the pillars or to the mountains Calpe and Atlas that often replaced Abila of Pliny. Moreover, the word Gades got the meaning of limit, border, fence and was used for other extremities of the oecumene. As it is known, the history is also reflected on medieval maps and it is shown going from the East to the West. In this case Gades Herculis can be not only spatial but also temporal limit considering that the East was the side of birth and the West signified death in Christian culture in general. Gades Herculis are designated in the westernmost location on all medieval world maps. However, the details of their depiction differ. The image of the Pillars of Hercules is also used for many emblems and heraldic symbols during the epochs following the Middle Ages.

Key words: Gades (Cádiz); mappae mundi; the Pillars of Hercules; Ptolemy.

FOR CITATION
Денисов А. О. Вариации в отображении Столпов Геракла на средневековых картах [Digital Resource] [Denisov A. Variations in Representation of Pillars of Hercules on Medieval Maps] // Vox medii aevi. 2020. Vol. 1–2(6–7). P. 178–228. URL: http://voxmediiaevi.com/2020-1-2-denisov